Stephen M. Howell, M.D.

ACL Reconstruction – Journal Articles

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ACL Reconstruction Aggressive Rehabilitation

NEW! Anterior Laxity and Patient-Reported Outcomes 7 years after ACL Reconstruction with a Fresh-frozen Tibialis Allograft (Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthroscopy 2016)

The Effect of Graft Tissue on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Outcomes: A Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Autograft Hamstrings With Fresh-Frozen Anterior Tibialis Allograft (Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 2012)

Anterior Laxity, Slippage, and Recovery of Function in the First Year After Tibialis Allograft Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (American Journal of Sports Medicine 2011)

Tension In A Double Loop Tendon Anterior Cruciate Graft (2005)

Endoscopic & Two-Incision Technique (December 1998)

Recommended Reading – Brace-Free Rehabilitation (Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 1996)

Anterior Tibial Translation (February 1990)

ACL Fixation

NEW! Roentgen Stereophotogrammetric Analysis Methods for Determining Ten Causes of Lengthening of a Soft-Tissue Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Construct (August 2008)

NEW! Can Markers Injected Into a Single – Loop Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Define the Axes of the Tibial and Femoral Tunnels? (August 2008)

Recommended Reading – High-Stiffness Distal Fixation Restores Anterior Laxity & Stiffness (August 2007)

Time-Related Changes in the Cross-Sectional Area of the Tibial Tunnel After Compaction (August 2006)

The EZLoc: A Simple, Rigid Femoral Fixation Device for a Soft Tissue Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft (2005)

The WasherLoc & Bone Dowel (2005)

How Cyclic Loading Affects Migration of Radio-Opaque Markers (February 2004)

Foam-Reinforced Elderly Human Tibia Approximates Young Human Tibia Better Than Porcine Tibia (2004)

Lengthening of Double-Looped Tendon Graft Constructs in 3 Regions After Cyclic Loading (November 2003)

Recommended Reading – How 4 Weeks of Implantation Can Affect a Tendon Graft in a Bone Tunnel (2002)

Recommended Reading – Structural Properties of Six Tibial Fixation Methods for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Soft Tissue Grafts (1999)

Contributions of Femoral Fixation Methods to the Stiffness of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Replacements

Tibial Tunnel Placement – Impingement

NEW! Rationale for Strategic Graft Placement in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: I.D.E.A.L. Femoral Tunnel Position (2015)

Checkpoints for Judging Tunnel and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Placement (April 2009)

Avoiding ACL Graft Impingement: Principles for Tunnel Placement Using the Transtibial Tunnel Technique (June 2007)

Does a Tensioning Device Pinned to the Tibia Improve Knee Anterior–Posterior Load-Displacement Compared to Manual Tensioning of the Graft following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction? (July 2006)

Loss of Motion Due to Graft Impingement (2006)

Avoiding Posterior Cruciate Ligament & Roof Impingement (2005)

Gravity Reduces the Tibia When Using a Tibial Guide (2004)

Recommended Reading – Effect of the Angle of the Femoral & Tibial Tunnels (June 2003)

Recommended Reading – The Relationship between the Angle of the Tibial Tunnel (2001)

Quadriceps Load Aggravates & Roofplasty Mitigates Active Impingement (July 1998)

Principles for Placing the Tibial Tunnel & Avoiding Roof Impingement (1998)

Contact Pressure & Tension in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Grafts (December 1996)

Recommended Reading – Knee Extension & Its Relationship to the Slope of the lntercondylar Roof (1995)

Arthroscopic Findings Associated with Roof Impingement of an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft (1995)

Recommended Reading – Failure of Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Due to Impingment by the Intercondylar Roof (July 1993)

Arthroscopic Roofplasty: A Method for Correcting an Extension Deficit Caused by Roof Impingement (1992)

Tibial Tunnel Placement in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructions & Graft Impingement (October 1992)

Serial Magnetic Resonance Study Assessing the Effects of Impingement on the MR Image (1992)

A Rationale for Predicting Graft Impingement by the Anterior Cruciate Intercondylar Roof (1991)

Unimpinged & Impinged Anterior Cruciate Ligament Grafts: MR Signal Intensity Measurements (June 1991)

Serial Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Hamstring Anterior Cruciate Ligament Autografts During First Year (1991)

DLSTG Graft Mechanics

Coupled Motions Under Compressive Load in Intact and ACL-Deficient Knees: A Cadaveric Study (December 2007)

Empirical Relationship Between Lengthening an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft (December 2006)

A Cadaveric Study of Two Tibial Fixation Devices (March 2006)

Recommended Reading – Early Tension Loss in an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft (February 2005)

Tension In A Double Loop Tendon Anterior Cruciate Graft (2005)

Initial Tension and Anterior Load-Displacement Behavior of High-Stiffness Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft (August 2004)

How the Fixation Method Stiffness & Initial Tension Affect Anterior Load (August 2003)

Recommended Reading – Effect of the Angle of the Femoral & Tibial Tunnels in the Coronal Plane (June 2003)

A Biomechanical Evaluation of Anterior and Posterior Tibialis Tendons (2002)

A Method for Quantifying the Anterior Load–Displacement Behavior of the Human Knee (July 2001)

Comparison of Viscoelastic, Structural & Material Properties of Double-Looped Anterior Cruciate Ligament Grafts (April 2001)

Evaluation of the Single-Incision Arthroscopic Technique for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Replacement (1999)

Can an Isometer Predict the Tensile Behavior of a Double-Looped Hamstring Graft…? (1998)

In Vivo Tensile Behavior of a Four-Bundle Hamstring Graft as a Replacement for Anterior Cruciate Ligament (1997)

Evolution of Surgical Technique Using DLSTG Graft

NEW! Controversies in Soft-tissue Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Grafts, Bundles, Tunnels, Fixation, and Harvest (2008)

Clinics in Sports Medicine (2007)

Autogenous Graft Choices in ACL Reconstruction (2001)

Rationale and Endoscopic Technique for Anatomic Placement and Rigid Fixation (1998)

Endoscopic Fixation of a Double-Looped Semitendinosus & Gracilis Anterior Cruciate Ligament (July 1996)

Arthroscopically Assisted Technique for Preventing Roof Impingement of an Anterior Cruciate Ligament (January 1993)

Biology and Blood Supply of DLSTG Graft

How Four Weeks of Implantation Affect the Strength and Stiffness of a Tendon Graft in a Bone Tunnel (2002)

Recommended Reading – Revascularization of a Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft During the First Two Years of Implantation (1995)


Identification of Cross-Sectional Parameters of Lateral Meniscal Allografts (October 2002)

A Study in Human Cadaveric Knees (February 2002)

Nonanatomic Location of the Posterior Horn of a Medial Meniscal Autograft Implanted in a Cadaveric Knee (2002)

Use of Roentgenography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Predict Meniscal Geometry (2000)

Contact Mechanics of the Medial Tibial Plateau After Implantation (2000)

Is the Circumferential Tensile Modulus within a Human Medical Meniscus Affected by the Test Sample Location…? (2000)

How Three Methods for Fixing a Media Meniscal Autograft Affect Tibial Contact Mechanics (1999)

Meniscal Tears: MR and Arthrographic Findings after Arthroscopic Repair (1991)

Instrumentation of Bone Mulch Screw for in Vivo Measurements

In Vivo Calibration of a Femoral Fixation Device Transducer (August 2001)

Static & Fatigue Strength of a Fixation Device Transducer for Measuring Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Tension (December 2000)

A New Technique for Transmission of Signals from Implantable Transducers

Telemetry System for Monitoring Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Forces In Vivo

An Implantable Transducer for Measuring Tension in an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft

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